By Bradley Dunseith
In April, 2017, the World Bank (WB) released their biannual East Asia and Pacific Economic Update, entitled, “Sustaining Resilience.” As the title suggests, the WB anticipates growth in East Asia and Pacific, including ASEAN states, to remain resilient despite risks from global and regional vulnerabilities. In this article, we go through “Sustaining Resilience” and summarize the WB’s forecast for developing ASEAN states generally as well as their country specific predictions for economic growth.
About the report
The WB predicts that large developing economies will continue to grow moderately while smaller regional economies will benefit from the rapid growth of their neighbors as well as high commodity prices. The WB marked that poverty has continued to decline in most countries and will continue to fall with sustained growth and rising labor incomes. However, the WB report noted that global policy uncertainties means that countries must address macroeconomic vulnerabilities so as to prepare for external shocks to the economy. External shocks – such as changes in US policy – disproportionately affect smaller countries; as such, the WB report strongly recommends small economics to improve the efficiency of their public spending in preparation of needed structural changes.
MALAYSIA: Sarawak, Sabah and Labuan exempted from cabotage policy
With effect from June 1, 2017 the states of Sarawak and Sabah as well as the Federal Territory of Labuan will be exempted from the cabotage policy. As per the erstwhile policy, only Malaysia-flagged ships were permitted to transport cargo from Peninsular Malaysia to these three territories and vice versa. As a result foreign vessels carrying freight bound for the three territories had to stop at the port of Klang in Selangor state in Peninsular Malaysia in order to transfer the goods to domestic ships for onward shipment to Sarawak, Sabah and Labuan.
The Malaysian transport ministry has announced that the exemption will however not apply to freight transport between Labuan and the states of Sarawak and Sabah. While the domestic shipping industry has protested against the government’s move to end the cabotage policy, it has been welcomed by the local administrations. It is believed that the policy had led to higher prices of commodities and as a result a higher cost of living in the three territories. Observers have stated that now it will be possible to ship goods directly to Sarawak, Sabah and Labuan without having to transfer at a Peninsular Malaysian port.
Singapore: ISO 37001 Anti-Bribery Systems Management Standard adopted
In order to enable Singapore-registered companies to implement and manage anti-bribery best practices, the city-state recently adopted the ISO 37001 Anti-Bribery Systems Management Standard. The Standard is being launched jointly by SPRING Singapore, an agency under the Ministry of Trade and Industry, and Singapore’s Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). The two organisations released a joint statement saying ISO 37001 “is based on internationally recognized good practices [and] provides guidelines to help Singapore companies strengthen their anti-bribery compliance systems and processes [to] ensure compliance with anti-bribery laws.”
An accreditation mechanism for certification bodies is expected to be rolled out by the end of 2017. The majority of people prosecuted for bribery and corruption in Singapore in 2016 were private sector employees. According to the CPIB, 808 corruption complaints were filed in 2016, down from 877 complaints filled in the previous year.
The Philippines: Fresh FDI surge registered
According to figures released by the Philippines’ central bank, Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas, the country registered US$685 million in fresh Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in January, a 13.2% increase from US$605 million registered over the same period in the previous year. The foreign capital received in January is also the highest monthly FDI inflow since a US$744 million FDI inflow in November 2016. The central bank has stated that the fresh FDI surge comes as investors remain optimistic on the growth potential of the country’s economy, which is backed by strong macroeconomic fundamentals.
The Philippines economy, with an upwardly adjusted 6.9% growth rate, was one of the fastest growing markets in Asia in 2016. Industry watchers and economists have credited the country’s growth successes to large foreign currency reserves and a sound banking system. According to the central bank, the top sources of FDI at the beginning of the year were Germany, Singapore, Hong Kong, the United States, and Japan. Among the largest recipients of foreign capital are electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply; construction; wholesale and retail trade; administrative and support service; and financial and insurance services sectors. The central bank expects FDI to reach at least US$7 billion by the end of this year.
By: Dezan Shira & Associates
An Introduction to Doing Business in ASEAN 2017, the latest publication from Dezan Shira & Associates, is out now and available for complimentary download through the Asia Briefing Publication Store.
What happens in and around ASEAN is one of the key factors increasingly impacting upon China and India trade flows, as well as the rest of Asia. While the ASEAN trade bloc has been in existence since 1967, it has really shown its importance in trade and commercial business flows since the rise of China over the past three decades, and through its response to China’s changing domestic demographics. Those changes – an aging and increasingly consumer demanding China – have been skillfully adapted by ASEAN to place the future of global manufacturing, and where it takes place, firmly within its own orbit.
Simply put, free trade agreements that came into effect with China and India in 2010 changed the face of Asian trade and production, and are continuing to do so. For example, bilateral trade figures between China and ASEAN’s Big Five of Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand have multiplied by factors of 500 percent since the agreement was signed. With the smaller ASEAN nations of Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Vietnam coming into line with their own compliance of ASEAN customs duty reductions at the end of 2015, the entire bloc offers close to zero import-export tariffs for much of emerging Asia, including the giant markets of China and India, possessing some 500 million middle class consumers between them. ASEAN therefore represents a massive trade bloc possessing free trade agreements of global strategic importance. The question of accessing ASEAN for the benefit of North American, European and other global purchasing and manufacturing executives is a key function of this report.
An Introduction to Doing Business in ASEAN introduces the fundamentals of investing in the 10-nation ASEAN bloc, concentrating on economics, trade, corporate establishment and taxation. We also include the latest development news in our “Important Updates” section for each country, with the intent to provide an executive assessment of the varying component parts of ASEAN, assessing each member state and providing the most up-to-date economic and demographic data on each. Additional research and commentary on ASEAN’s relationships with China, India and Australia is also provided.
- An introduction to ASEAN
- Country profiles
- Case studies: ASEAN as a platform for Asian growth
Our practice, Dezan Shira & Associates, has taken giant steps into the ASEAN market through the establishment of offices throughout the region, in addition to the creation of a unique alliance of firms. That, coupled with our existing long experience of handling foreign investment into China and India, puts us in a unique position of truly understanding how Asia works and how to maximize its free trade benefits.
Asia Briefing Ltd. is a subsidiary of Dezan Shira & Associates. Dezan Shira is a specialist foreign direct investment practice, providing corporate establishment, business advisory, tax advisory and compliance, accounting, payroll, due diligence and financial review services to multinationals investing in China, Hong Kong, India, Vietnam, Singapore and the rest of ASEAN. For further information, please email email@example.com or visit www.dezshira.com.
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Dezan Shira & Associates Brochure
Dezan Shira & Associates is a pan-Asia, multi-disciplinary professional services firm, providing legal, tax and operational advisory to international corporate investors. Operational throughout China, ASEAN and India, our mission is to guide foreign companies through Asia’s complex regulatory environment and assist them with all aspects of establishing, maintaining and growing their business operations in the region. This brochure provides an overview of the services and expertise Dezan Shira & Associates can provide.
An Introduction to Doing Business in ASEAN 2017
An Introduction to Doing Business in ASEAN 2017 introduces the fundamentals of investing in the 10-nation ASEAN bloc, concentrating on economics, trade, corporate establishment, and taxation. We also include the latest development news for each country, with the intent to provide an executive assessment of the varying component parts of ASEAN, assessing each member state and providing the most up-to-date economic and demographic data on each.
Human Resources in ASEAN
In this issue of ASEAN Briefing, we discuss the prevailing structure of ASEAN’s labor markets and outline key considerations regarding wages and compliance at all levels of the value chain. We highlight comparative sentiment on labor markets within the region, showcase differences in cost and compliance between markets, and provide insight on the state of statutory social insurance obligations throughout the bloc.
Myanmar: Hefty Fines for flouting building regulations
From April 1, building owners in Mandalay will face hefty fines if their buildings violate government regulations or have been constructed without a valid permit. As per the Mandalay City Development Committee (MCDC) building rules section 10 (a), (b), (c), the new fine rates for buildings constructed beyond the permit stipulations or without approval are US$10.89 (K15,000) per square foot for reinforced concrete buildings and US$7.26 (K10,000) per square foot for brick nogging buildings. The penalty for business and contract buildings will be US$10.89 (K15,000) per square foot, while for other buildings it will be US$5.81 (K8,000) per square foot.
Earlier, builders violating the norms could easily pay a small fine and continue flouting guidelines. The MCDC hopes that the new fines will force builders to construct in accordance with the regulations. In some cases, the fines can be higher than the value of the building depending on the violation. The MCDC also stipulated that buildings for business use should include parking lots, fire extinguishers, and automated fire extinguishing systems.
By Zolzaya Erdenebileg
While Laos is still one of the poorest members in ASEAN, the country has posted strong growth rates for the past ten years, typically oscillating between seven and eight percent. This places Laos among the fastest-growing economies in ASEAN. The country is rich in resources, particularly agriculture, forestry, hydropower, and minerals. However, infrastructure is still underdeveloped and poverty rates are high. Efficient management of national resources is key to unlocking Lao’s development potentials, and any instability in governance will pose higher risk for potential investors.
Laos is forecasted to have reached a growth rate of 6.8 percent in 2016. In 2017, the economy is expected to improve at a slightly faster rate with seven percent. This will make Laos the third fastest growing economy in ASEAN, behind Myanmar and Cambodia. Inflation remains steady at a projected 1.6 percent and 2.3 percent in 2016 and 2017, respectively. Laos runs a negative current account balance, at about 16 percent of GDP in 2016.
Indonesia: New rules for transfer pricing
The Indonesian government approved a new Minister of Finance regulation, MoF 213/2016, on new rules for transfer pricing documentation, effective January 2017. The new decree stipulates that firms doing cross-border transactions with affiliates must prepare transfer pricing documents detailing their global structure and payments. The move aims to match global standards and curb tax avoidance. Multinationals with annual turnover of at least US$822.74 million (IDR 11 trillion) must prepare a country-by-country (CbC) report with information about their affiliates, revenue, profits, income tax paid in different jurisdictions, retained earnings, and assets. The companies are also required to prepare a master file and a local file, which should include its Indonesian company details, structure, assets, and transactions.
Companies with annual gross revenue of more than US$377,000 (IDR 50 billion) or accumulated transactions of more than US$150,800 (IDR 20 billion) for tangible assets and US$37,700 (IDR 5 billion) for intangible assets need to prepare only the master and local files. Transactions with tax residents in countries with a lower statuary rate than that of Indonesia’s 25 percent are also required to prepare the master and local files. The government is also offering companies to settle previous tax disputes by paying a penalty under an amnesty program until March 2017.
Cambodia: New Tax Regulations for Multi-activity Businesses
The Ministry of Economy and Finance (MEF) in October introduced notification Prakas 1127 detailing updated requirements for companies carrying multiple business activities including one or more Qualified Investment Projects (QIP). A QIPs is an investment project that has been issued a Final Registration Certificate (FRC). In order to qualify as a QIP, the investor has to register the project with the Council for the Development of Cambodia (CDC) or Provincial Municipals Investment Sub-Committee (PMIS) to receive the FRC. Businesses that will be affected include those that have more than one QIP, those that carry out more than one business activity subject to different rates of tax on profit and companies that are involved in QIP and non-QIP business activities.
This notification also applies to businesses carrying out the aforementioned activities that were incorporated before October 11. Such businesses will have to register their business activities separately with the General Department of Taxation (GDT) within 15 days of starting the activity and get a separate Value Added Tax (VAT) and Tax Identification Number (TIN). These business will also have to submit monthly and annual tax returns for the registered business activity.
Philippines: Government Considers Mandatory Disaster Coverage
The Philippines government is considering a mandatory household and business insurance cover against natural disasters. While some individuals take out policies against natural threats, the Philippine Insurers and Reinsurers Association (PIRA) state that a mandatory scheme allows for the significant amount of funds required to meet the large claims that are likely to be made.
The developments come in the context of the Philippines being prone to natural disasters like typhoons and flooding. The Super Typhoon Haiyan, three years ago, cost the economy around US$ 14 billion, out of which only US$ 2 billion was covered by insurance. A study by international insurer Lloyd’s City Risk Index 2015-25 showed that around half of Manila’s GDP of US$ 201 billion is at risk of being lost due to a natural calamity without any insurance coverage. The proposal is backed by private sector insurers as well as the World Bank. If passed, the bill would boost the insurance industry.